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Research into the role of the brain and mind in chronic pain

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We determine our world through the actions we take. Whether from the inside or out, our bodies provide us with the means to actively investigate our environment. This investigation is vital to survival. Active investigation enables us to reduce the uncertainty of the world, accommodate the unexpected, and better predict the consequences of our actions. The significance here is that the traditional boundaries between action and perception are blurred. These ‘ embodied’ approaches to experience place the body at the centre of investigation.

At first glance this may seem intuitive, an unnecessary qualification of experience, particularly when we extend the embodied agenda to investigate the experience of pain, an experience that is fundamentally to do with the body. Yet, as we recently asserted under the Embodied Pain Framework (Tabor et al, 2017), simply recognising the body as ‘real and substantial’ (Hohwy, 2013) does not go far enough in promoting the role of the body in experience.

Modern, neuroscientific approaches to perceptual experience have turned traditional conceptions quite literally on their head. Rather than experience being determined by the passive receipt of information, experience is now widely considered primarily in terms of prediction (Friston, 2010): a fundamentally active pursuit undertaken by the organism in an attempt to work out the most likely consequence of an interaction. In essence, we have shifted from a sensory impingement model, that stated experience was driven by bottom-up information, to a predictive model (Friston, 2010; Hohwy, 2013), that proffers a top-down approach, with the brain predicting the state of the environment in which we exist.

Such a position has looked to dismiss remnants of a Cartesian love-in, replacing it with a platform that unifies the mind, body and brain. In reality, we are at risk of remaining in the same boat (albeit a bigger and shinier model), having replaced one dualism for another. The self-declared neurocentric contingent of this predictive approach (Friston, 2010; Hohwy, 2016), propose that experience is necessarily represented in, and isolated to, the brain. In so doing, relegating the role of the body to that of an experiential messenger, passively relaying information toward or away from the organ of import. So, although neuroscientific developments have potentially provided a powerful means to unify our understanding of experience, including pain, it seems to have done so by sidelining the body (Burr and Jones, 2016).

It is from this relegated position (as a Fulham fan, relegation is still a supremely sore topic), that the Embodied Pain Framework looks to redress the balance, returning the body to the fore, not as an arbitrary location of experience that is constructed by the brain, but rather as an integral and active determinant of that experience (Clark, in press ). Importantly, we stress that such an ‘ embodied’ framing of experience does not sit in contrast to predictive accounts, but in many ways, complements and even extends them (for further discussion, see Clark, 2017).

Because however not all of jQuery's methods have corresponding single-node functions, Padolsey devised the idea of a jQuery.single utility.

The idea here is that a single jQuery object is created and used for each call to jQuery.single (effectively meaning only one jQuery object is ever created). The implementation for this can be found below and as we're consolidating data for multiple possible objects into a more central singular structure, it is technically also a Flyweight.

An example of this in action with chaining is:

Note: Although we may believe that simply caching our jQuery code may offer just as equivalent performance gains, Padolsey claims that $.single() is still worth using and can perform better. That's not to say don't apply any caching at all, just be mindful that this approach can assist. For further details about $.single, I recommend reading Padolsey's full post.

In this section, we're going to review three very important architectural patterns - MVC (Model-View-Controller), MVP (Model-View-Presenter) and MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel). In the past, these patterns have been heavily used for structuring desktop and server-side applications but it's only been in recent years that come to being applied to JavaScript.

As the majority of JavaScript developers currently using these patterns opt to utilize libraries such as Backbone.js for implementing an MVC/MV*-like structure, we will compare how modern solutions such as it differ in their interpretation of MVC compared to classical takes on these patterns.

Let us first now cover the basics.

MVC is an architectural design pattern that encourages improved application organization through a separation of concerns. It enforces the isolation of business data (Models) from user interfaces (Views), with a third component (Controllers) traditionally managing logic and user-input. The pattern was originally designed by Alice Cicolini 22k Yellow Gold Silver Emerald Cut Citrine Ring Discount Finishline Zrme3
during his time working on Smalltalk-80 (1979) where it was initially called Model-View-Controller-Editor. MVC went on to be described in depth in 1995's
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(The "GoF" book), which played a role in popularizing its use.

It's important to understand what the original MVC pattern was aiming to solve as it's mutated quite heavily since the days of its origin. Back in the 70's, graphical user-interfaces were few and far between and a concept known as Liu Jo embellished slogan Tshirt Low Cost New Styles Online Nicekicks Sale Online s4fyVW
began to be used as a means to make a clear division between domain objects which modeled concepts in the real world (e.g a photo, a person) and the presentation objects which were rendered to the user's screen.

The Smalltalk-80 implementation of MVC took this concept further and had an objective of separating out the application logic from the user interface. The idea was that decoupling these parts of the application would also allow the reuse of models for other interfaces in the application. There are some interesting points worth noting about Smalltalk-80's MVC architecture:

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Tausif Alam has more than seven years of experience in the media industry and has worked in both print and digital spaces. He began his career with Economic Times, where he worked for four years, and then switched to YourStory. Tausif is a straight-talker who believes in 'seedhi baat, no bakwaas', and aims to say things without mincing words.